Instructions for Authors

It is compulsory to organise your manuscript according to the requirements mentioned in this document. Please note that the articles which are not written as indicated in the “Instructions for Authors” will not be considered for publication.

Title page

The title page must be 30 words maximum. In addition, the following must be provided on this page:

  • Authors’ name, affiliation including the correct mailing and email addresses. No academic degrees are necessary to be mentioned.
  • Corresponding author’s name and affiliation, mailing and email addresses as well as phone number. This author should also be the “Guarantor” regarding the integrity of the study.
  • This part should also mention the any sources of support for the study received by the authors.
  • For more efficiency this part should also mention the words number of the main text excluding the Tile Page, Abstract, References, Legends and any graphics.


Regardless the type of article, the authors are required to present in the Abstract part the actual content the main text. The Abstract should be non-structured and should not have more than 300 words. Please do not use abbreviation or references in the abstract. It should present very briefly the rationale of the study, the materials and methods of the study, results and a very short summary of the outcomes of the study. As indicated in the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication” written by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (2010), manuscripts presenting clinical trials should have constructed the Abstract part as indicated by the CONSORT group (

Main text

This part should include all the article’s parts as indicated for each type of article. This part should not include any indication related to the authors’ names or acknowledgements. Please note the maximum number of words` according to each type of article. Also, you must provide several keywords as indicated for each type of article. Please use doc or rtf files. Do not incorporate graphs, diagrams or images in the actual main text. This part must be numbered starting with the first page after the abstract but including the References. If necessary, the main text may include endnotes as a superscript written with lowercase letters.

In addition, manuscripts related to clinical studies should be presented according to the guidelines for each specific type of clinical study as mentioned below:

  • Randomized clinical trials: CONSORT
  • Observational studies in epidemiology: STROBE
  • Meta-analyses in observational studies in epidemiology: MOOSE
  • Meta-analyses and systematic reviews: QUOROM
  • Case reports: CARE
  • Pre-clinical animal studies: ARRIVE
  • Diagnostic Studies: STARD


In this part the authors must provide a general background related to the main focus of the study. Also, this part must include the aims, primary goals of the study as well as the tested hypothesis. This part could include also information about the secondary objectives. It should not include information about the outcomes of the study.


This section should describe all the methods and devices used during the study. The manufactures name and contact details must be provided. Regarding the well established methods, these must be described and a relevant reference must be mentioned in the manuscript. The innovative or those methods that are not standardized must be presented in great detail in order to allow replication by other research groups. In these cases, a photo or a detailed diagram must be provided as well. The authors must include a rationale for using the methods. Detailed information regarding all the chemical, pharmacological and biological agents must be included in this part of the main text.

The authors must present a clear and accurate description of the selection process of the experimental subjects (patients or laboratory experimental animals). The exclusion/inclusion criteria must be fully debated and explained. The age and sex of the subjects must be stated. An accurate description of the source of the experimental subjects is required. In addition, any un-expected or side effects of the pharmacological agents or procedures must be noted.

The Review articles must present the methods that were used in selecting and evaluating the data while the Methodology and Protocols articles must present an enlarged and detailed part on Methods.

In addition, when applicable, the authors must indicate the statistical methods used in their experiments which should verify the reported results. If applicable the indicators of measurement error and uncertainty should be calculated in addition to p intervals. Brief definitions of statistical terms should be mentioned as well. An explanation of the symbols and abbreviations must be provided.

The results including the statistical evaluation could be presented in the actual Methods section as well as in diagrams, tables and other type of visual graphics. However, the data presented in these should not be repeated in the main text. If required, supplementary technical details regarding the results could be inserted in an Appendix. Most importantly, the authors are encouraged to give both numerical results as well as percentages. As indicated in the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication” written by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (2010), the authors should not include terms such as “random”, “normal”, “significant” , “correlations” and “sample” when describing statistics.

Discussion and Conclusions

In this part of the main text, the authors should highlight the study’s main findings. They should not reiterate the data and information presented in the previous parts of the manuscript. There is no need to present again the background of the problem which was evaluated. In this section, the authors should attempt to explain the potential mechanisms responsible for their findings. In addition, a thorough comparison with the results of similar studies should be enclosed in this section. The authors must highlight the limitations of study. They must evaluate the potential future research directions in the context of their study outcomes. Clinical or clinical-pathological correlations must also be formulated. Overall, in this part of the manuscript any statement should be based of clear research data. The author’s should not claim priority for preliminary results and should not make any speculations related to a financial benefit/loss related to their study unless the economic aspect is an integral part of their research.


References should be provided within the main text but the authors are recommended to select the most appropriate papers without creating exhaustive long lists of cited papers. The citations must be accurate reflecting the idea/concept mentioned in the authors’ manuscript. The authors should try not to use scientific meetings’ presentations or personal communications as references. The authors are encouraged to cite the actual “original” work rather than an article that cites the original work. Documents provided by the websites of scientific professional organisations are acceptable but the authors must provide in the Reference lists the web site’s name, link and URL. These details should not be included in the actual main text.

Manuscripts “in press” are not acceptable as references. The authors are responsible to verify that their references list does not include a “retracted article”. As indicated by ICMJE, PubMed represents the most accurate source for verification of all published research articles.

As indicated in the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication” written by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (2010), the reference style and format is based mostly on the American National Standards Institute implemented style which was modified by the National Library of Medicine. For more information the authors are encouraged to consult the National Library of Medicine database.

The references including those representing scientific documents provided by the websites should be numbered as they appear in the main text. In text, references should be indicated by Arabic numerals in square brackets. If there are references only in the legends text, these should be numbered as well according to their location in the main text. Regarding the titles of the journals included in the References list, these should be abbreviated as indicated n the MEDLINE list of Journals Indexed. This list may be also accessed on the website of the National Library of Medicine.

It is recommended to include in the actual Reference list the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) as complete URLs at the end of each cited paper.


Journal articles-pages mentioned Perkins J Jr, Misleh J. Looking beyond the test. Am J Med Sci. 2013; 346(3):234-5.

Journal articles with DOI but no page mentioned Fang WH, Kumar S, McDowell G, Smith D, Krupinski J, Olah P, Al-Baradie RS, Al-Rukban MO, Petcu EB, Slevin M. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded with p5, Derived from CDK5 Activator p35, Inhibit Calcium-Induced CDK5 Activation in Endothelial Cells. Stem Cells Int. 2016; 2016:2165462. doi: 10.1155/2016/2165462.

Journal supplement article Panzram G, Pissarek D. Long-term diabetes-associated factors in survivorship and mortality. Horm Metab Res. 1985; Supp 15:10-5.

Book article or chapter Smith Y, Brown A, Peter E. Neuroleptic syndrome. In: Michael T, Marshall L, Jeon KW, editors. American Neurological Journal. Singapore: Academic; 1975. p. 321-386.

Online book-no pages but with a DOI Johnson M, Slevin T. The role of surgery in brain aneurysms. Int J Neuro. 2005. doi:10.1077/028_2075_134.

Full Book Nielsen A, Patrick P. Myocardial infarction: a clinical guide. 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1987.

Online documents Smith J. Clinical forms of asthma. In: The dictionary of respiratory medicine. Royal College of Pathologists 1999. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.

Online repository Medical Database.US Pharmacological, New York.1985. Accessed 14 Sept 2016.

Preparing figures

Formatting instructions

When preparing figures, please follow the formatting instructions below.

  • Figures should be provided as separate files, not embedded in the main manuscript file.
  • Each figure of a manuscript should be submitted as a single file that fits on a single page in portrait format.
  • Tables should NOT be submitted as figures but should be included in the main manuscript file.
  • Multi-panel figures (those with parts a, b, c, d etc.) should be submitted as a single composite file that contains all parts of the figure.
  • Figures should be numbered in the order they are first mentioned in the text, and uploaded in this order.
  • Figures should be uploaded in the correct orientation.
  • Figure titles (max 15 words) and legends (max 300 words) should be provided in the main manuscript, not in the graphic file.
  • Figure keys should be incorporated into the graphic, not into the legend of the figure.
  • Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration. Cropping figures improves accuracy when placing the figure in combination with other elements when the accepted manuscript is prepared for publication on our site. For more information on individual figure file formats, see our detailed instructions.
  • Individual figure files should not exceed 10 MB. If a suitable format is chosen, this file size is adequate for extremely high quality figures.
  • Please note that it is the responsibility of the author(s) to obtain permission from the copyright holder to reproduce figures (or tables) that have previously been published elsewhere. In order for all figures to be open access, authors must have permission from the rights holder if they wish to include images that have been published elsewhere in non-open access journals. Permission should be indicated in the figure legend, and the original source included in the reference list.

Figure file types

We accept the following file formats for figures:

  • EPS (suitable for diagrams and/or images)
  • PDF (suitable for diagrams and/or images)
  • Microsoft Word (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • PowerPoint (suitable for diagrams and/or images, figures must be a single page)
  • TIFF (suitable for images)
  • JPEG (suitable for photographic images, less suitable for graphical images)
  • PNG (suitable for images)
  • BMP (suitable for images)
  • CDX (ChemDraw - suitable for molecular structures)

For information and suggestions of suitable file formats for specific figure types, please see our author academy.

Figure size and resolution

Figures are resized during publication of the final full text and PDF versions to conform to the VascularCell standard dimensions, which are detailed below.

Figures on the web:

  • width of 600 pixels (standard), 1200 pixels (high resolution).

Figures in the final PDF version:

  • width of 85 mm for half page width figure
  • width of 170 mm for full page width figure
  • maximum height of 225 mm for figure and legend
  • image resolution of approximately 300 dpi (dots per inch) at the final size

Figures should be designed such that all information, including text, is legible at these dimensions. All lines should be wider than 0.25 pt when constrained to standard figure widths. All fonts must be embedded.

Figure file compression

  • Vector figures should if possible be submitted as PDF files, which are usually more compact than EPS files.
  • TIFF files should be saved with LZW compression, which is lossless (decreases file size without decreasing quality) in order to minimize upload time.
  • JPEG files should be saved at maximum quality.
  • Conversion of images between file types (especially lossy formats such as JPEG) should be kept to a minimum to avoid degradation of quality.

If you have any questions or are experiencing a problem with figures, please contact the customer service team at

Preparing tables

When preparing tables, please follow the formatting instructions below:

  • Tables should be numbered and cited in the text in sequence using Arabic numerals (i.e. Table 1, Table 2 etc.).
  • Tables less than one A4 or Letter page in length can be placed in the appropriate location within the manuscript.
  • Tables larger than one A4 or Letter page in length can be placed at the end of the document text file. Please cite and indicate where the table should appear at the relevant location in the text file so that the table can be added in the correct place during production.
  • Larger datasets, or tables too wide for A4 or Letter landscape page can be uploaded as additional files. Please see [below] for more information.
  • Tabular data provided as additional files can be uploaded as an Excel spreadsheet (.xls ) or comma separated values (.csv). Please use the standard file extensions.
  • Table titles (max 15 words) should be included above the table, and legends (max 300 words) should be included underneath the table.
  • Tables should not be embedded as figures or spreadsheet files, but should be formatted using ‘Table object’ function in your word processing program.
  • Color and shading may not be used. Parts of the table can be highlighted using superscript, numbering, lettering, symbols or bold text, the meaning of which should be explained in a table legend.
  • Commas should not be used to indicate numerical values.

If you have any questions or are experiencing a problem with tables, please contact the customer service team at

Preparing additional files

As the length and quantity of data is not restricted for many article types, authors can provide datasets, tables, movies, or other information as additional files.

All Additional files will be published along with the accepted article. Do not include files such as patient consent forms, certificates of language editing, or revised versions of the main manuscript document with tracked changes. Such files, if requested, should be sent by email to the journal’s editorial email address, quoting the manuscript reference number. Please do not send patient consent forms unless requested.

Results that would otherwise be indicated as "data not shown" should be included as additional files. Since many web links and URLs rapidly become broken, Vascular Cell requires that supporting data are included as additional files, or deposited in a recognized repository. Please do not link to data on a personal/departmental website. Do not include any individual participant details. The maximum file size for additional files is 20 MB each, and files will be virus-scanned on submission. Each additional file should be cited in sequence within the main body of text.

If additional material is provided, please list the following information in a separate section of the manuscript text:

  • File name (e.g. Additional file 1)
  • File format including the correct file extension for example .pdf, .xls, .txt, .pptx (including name and a URL of an appropriate viewer if format is unusual)
  • Title of data
  • Description of data

Additional files should be named "Additional file 1" and so on and should be referenced explicitly by file name within the body of the article, e.g. 'An additional movie file shows this in more detail [see Additional file 1]'.

For further guidance on how to use Additional files or recommendations on how to present particular types of data or information, please see How to use additional files.


Authors are encouraged to use tables in presenting the results of their study as this conveys the information more efficiently to the readers. The tables should not be inserted in the main text but they should be submitted as a separate file. However, in the main text, the tables should be numbered consecutively as they are mentioned in the text. A title should be provided for each table. The authors may elect to place a short description in the footnotes below the table’s title. No abbreviation should be used in the tables’ title. The authors must make sure that all their tables are cited correctly in the main text.

Digital images

The color digital images that are representative for the study should be less than 10 MB in size. They could include originally designed figures, photographs such as radiological films and other diagnostic images and microphotographs.

For more efficiency, the authors are instructed to reduce the size of the images. The digital images must be submitted as separate files in a JPEG or GIF format. They should not be inserted in the main text. Microphotographs must have internal scale markers. Photographs that could allow identification of patients must be submitted along with a written approval from the patient.

The digital images must be numbered consecutively and the authors are responsible to verify that they are cited correctly in the text. Vascular Cell accepts for publication only original pictures that have not been previously published.

In addition, a title should be provided for each digital image. The authors may elect to place a short description in the footnotes below the title of the digital image. No abbreviation should be used in the digital image’s title. The authors must make sure that all their digital images are cited correctly in the main text.

Legends for Table and Digital images

The Legends should be inserted in the footnotes below the title of the Tables or Digital Images. As a general rule, each symbol inserted in a legend must be clearly explained. Any addition, arrow or internal scale must be fully described and explained. Regarding the legends of the histological microphotographs, they should mention the tissue type and the reactive used.

Measurement units

The manuscript should report measurements of weight, volume, length and height in metric units. Temperatures must be mentioned in Celsius degrees while blood pressures must be mentioned as millimetres of mercury. In general, for haematological, pharmacological and clinical chemistry should mention both the local system as well as the International System of Units (SI).


The authors should not use abbreviation, the manuscript’s title and in the text of the abstract. When used for the first time in the main text, the abbreviation must follow in parentheses the actual term.

Additional requirements

Along with the manuscript, the authors must supply a cover letter in which they should present a rationale on why their material should be considered for publication. In addition, the authors must include in their cover letter the following:

  • if applicable, a statement regarding the human and/or animal ethics authorization
  • a statement regarding the submission endorsement by all the authors
  • confirmation of a written consent for publication from a patient if the manuscript contains data that could identify him/her
  • a statement regarding the authors’ individual contributions
  • a statement about any potential conflicts of interest of any nature
  • a statement regarding the acknowledgements.

Human and/or Animal Ethics approval

The authors must provide details of their institutional ethical approval involving human participants and human tissues or animal models. The following must be mentioned in the cover letter: the name of the institution which has provided the Ethical approval, number and date of this approval.

At the time of submission of the manuscript, it is not necessary to include a copy of Human and/or Animal Ethics approval but this must be provided at any time during the evaluation process if the Editor-in Chief, the Responsible Editor or any or the Reviewers will request it.

Submission endorsement

The cover letter must include a statement that the manuscript and all related materials have been red, seen and approved by all the authors who endorse its submission for publication. This paragraph must include the confirmation from the corresponding author-guarantor that the manuscript represents original and honest work.

The authors are urged to seek written consent for publication if the manuscript includes any information which points out towards a certain patient. This type of information includes but is not limited to text, digital images, tables or visual material. If the patient is a minor, written consent for publication must be obtained from the parents or the legal guardian. If the manuscript contains no information leading to the identification of the patient, the written consent for publication might not be required. The final decision regarding the need for a written consent for publication rests with the Editor-in-Chief.

At the time of submission of the manuscript, it is not necessary to include a copy of this written consent but this must be provided at any time during the evaluation process if the Editor-in Chief, the Responsible Editor or any or the Reviewers will request it.

Author’s individual contributions

The cover letter should describe very briefly, the individual input of all the authors to the design and implementation of the manuscript. The statement should mention only the initials of each author. For more information regarding the authorship criteria the authors are recommended to consult the Editorial policy section.

Conflicts of interest

All financial and non-financial competing interests must be declared in the cover letter. These could be represented but not limited to: any type of relationship that could bias their conclusions, funding from companies and government or institutional organisations. In brief, the authors must describe the nature of their sponsorships including the role of a sponsoring entity in designing the study, selecting the methods, equipment and materials, data collection and evaluation as well as interpretation of the results and the choice to submitting the manuscript for publication. If there are no conflicts of interest the cover letter should state: “The authors of the current manuscript submitted for evaluation declare that they have no competing interest”.


It is a requirement to acknowledge all the collaborators that have had an input regarding the implementation of the research, drafting of the manuscript but who do not meet the criteria for full authorship. Also, it is also required to acknowledge all the professionals that have helped the authors with scientific advice, graphics, information technology or translations. However, it is indicated that the authors seek permission for acknowledgements from those mentioned before submitting the manuscript for publication.